OLYMPIA, Wash. — Washington appears set to become the first state to allow a burial alternative known as “natural organic reduction” — an accelerated decomposition process that turns bodies into soil within weeks.The bill legalizing the process, sometimes referred to as “human composting,” has passed the Legislature and is headed to the desk of Democratic Gov. Jay Inslee.If signed by Inslee, the new law would take effect May 1, 2020. Inslee spokeswoman Jaime Smith said that while the governor’s office is still reviewing the bill, “this seems like a thoughtful effort to soften our footprint” on the Earth.The measure’s sponsor, Democratic Sen. Jamie Pedersen of Seattle, said that the low environmental impact way to dispose of remains makes sense, especially in crowded urban areas.The natural organic reduction process yields a cubic yard (0.76 cubic meters) of soil per body — enough to fill about two large wheelbarrows. Pedersen said that the same laws that apply to scattered cremated remains apply to the soil: Relatives can keep the soil in urns, use it to plant a tree on private property or spread it on public land in the state as long as they comply with existing permissions regarding remains.“It is sort of astonishing that you have this completely universal human experience — we’re all going to die — and here’s an area where technology has done nothing for us. We have the two means of disposing of human bodies that we’ve had for thousands of years, burying and burning,” Pedersen said. “It just seems like an area that is ripe for having technology help give us some better options than we have used.”Pedersen said an entrepreneurial constituent whose study of the process became her master’s thesis brought the idea to him.Katrina Spade, the founder and CEO of Recompose , was a graduate student in architecture at University of Massachusetts Amherst when she came up with the idea — modeling it on a practice farmers have used for decades to dispose of livestock.She modified that process a bit, and found that the use of wood chips, alfalfa and straw creates a mixture of nitrogen and carbon that accelerates natural decomposition when a body is placed in a temperature and moisture-controlled vessel and rotated.Six human bodies — all donors who Spade said wanted to be part of this study — were reduced to soil during a pilot project at Washington State University last year. The transformation from body to soil took between four and seven weeks, Spade said.A price for the service hasn’t yet been set, but the Recompose website states that the company’s “goal is to build a sustainable business to make recomposition a permanent death care option, serve people for decades to come, and make our services available to all who want them.”According to the Cremation Association of North America, Washington state’s cremation rate is the highest in the nation. More than 78 per cent of those who died in the state in 2017 were cremated, and that number is expected to increase to more than 82 per cent in 2022.Rob Goff, executive director of the Washington State Funeral Directors Association, said his group has been getting questions about the new process, and Spade has been a speaker at a series of recent district meetings of the association.“To be able to provide more options for people’s choices is a very exciting thing,” he said.Spade said that she doesn’t want to replace cremation or burial, but instead offer a meaningful alternative that is also environmentally friendly.“Our goal is to provide something that is as aligned with the natural cycle as possible, but still realistic in being able to serve a good number of families and not take up as much land as burial will,” she said.Pedersen said he thinks he may still want a marker in a cemetery when he dies, but said he is drawn to the idea of his body taking up less space with a process like natural organic reduction.“I think it’s really a lovely way of exiting the earth,” he said.Pederson’s bill also would authorize in Washington state the use of alkaline hydrolysis — already used in 19 other states — which uses heat, pressure, water, and chemicals like lye to reduce remains to components of liquid and bone similar to cremated ashes that can be kept in urns or interred.Rachel La Corte, The Associated Press
Lundin Gold has released the results of its update of the project estimate (UPE) for its Fruta del Norte gold project in southeast Ecuador. The UPE involved a thorough review of the mine plan, capital and operating cost re-estimate and an update to the project schedule. UPE highlights:•Reconfirmed construction schedule with first mine production planned in Q2 2019 and first gold production planned in Q4 2019•Reduced period of capital payback to 3.5 years from 4 years with improved IRR to 17.5% from 16.3%•A 10% increase in NPV 5% to $786 million from $717 million•Estimated all-in sustaining cost (AISC) reduced to $583/oz of gold from $609/oz of gold•Estimated operating cost per tonne decreased 7.3% from $111.84 to $103.65•Estimated total gold production increased by 73,000 oz to 4.6 Moz over a 15 year mine life•Total estimated capital expenditures increased only 1.2% from $684 million to $692 million.“At the end of August we had committed 63% of planned capital expenditure, and construction is 27% complete. The UPE demonstrates that we are on track to build Fruta del Norte on budget and on schedule which is a credit to our team,” said Ron Hochstein, Lundin Gold’s President and CEO. “We were able to lower the estimated AISC through improvements in the mine plan, refinement of processing costs and negotiation of smelting contracts for the concentrate. This further demonstrates the robustness of our high-grade Fruta del Norte gold deposit.”Fruta del Norte update:•As at August 31, 2018, a total of 2.9 km had been achieved including declines and auxiliary development, with 1.4 km and 1.5 km achieved in the Kuri and K’isa declines, respectively•Daily August average advance rates were 6.1 m for both Kuri and K’isa, versus a target of 4.7 m and 4.3 m/d, respectively•Both declines have now crossed the Machinaza Fault and have gone under the Machinaza River, with no water inflows•Grinding building steel erection is underway, and process plant concrete is 30% complete•Mill process equipment is arriving on site, and the grinding mills are currently en route•The two construction fronts on the North Access Road have met, and the road is expected to be complete by the end of September•The Environmental Licence was received for the Mountain Pass Quarry, and negotiation of the Quarry Exploitation Agreement with the Yantzaza municipality is well underway•Construction of the powerline, both onsite and offsite, is proceeding•Construction of the TSF is ongoing•63% of planned capital expenditure is now committed or incurred, of which 36% of planned capital expenditure has been incurred. Project engineering is now 60% complete•Activities have commenced to prepare for operations including the hiring of the general manager and mill manager.The company has increased its estimates for Probable Mineral Reserves slightly by 80,000 oz when compared to the project update announced on May 30, 2017 (the “PPR”) and by 204,000 oz when compared to the estimates contained in the Technical Report.