Reinventing India

first_imgIndia has long been ranked among the most dangerous nations for religious minorities and it has become all the more intense in recent years. Arguably then, in writing the political history of Islam in India, historians and scholars often fall into the trap of extreme ideological prejudices. For a few, Islam’s relationship with Hindu culture was gloriously intermingled, epitomising a splendid, pristine union of two great traditions. For the others, Islam is the sole, wicked cause of every disaster that reared its head anywhere in the vicinity of this country. India is situated between the earliest river valley civilisations of Egypt and Mesopotamia on the west and China on the east. Bound on the south, south-east, and south-west by a vast ocean and the seas and on the north, north-west and north-east by massive mountain ranges marked by some of the highest peaks of the world, India enjoyed a degree of protection and unique isolation. Yet its mountain passes, breaking through the great barrier at a number of places, particularly on the north-western frontier, provided a natural access to Afghanistan, Iran and Central Asia and from there either to West Asia and the Mediterranean world or to Turkistan and China. However, the more formidable mountain barrier on the north-east, while effectively discouraging easy movement of peoples, could not completely block the aggressors from the north. It all began with the invasion by Sultan Mahmud Ghazni in about 1000 AD, which resulted in the establishment of the Muslim rule in the Indian subcontinent that lasted for several centuries. Not only did they bring about Islamic imperialism, but they also triggered a struggle between two civilisations — one ancient and indigenous, the other medieval and migrant. However, over time, the two cultures amalgamated and it touched all aspects of human society. The invasions brought to India an advanced legal system, pride in one’s own religion, introduction of equality in society that led to outright rejection of the caste system and untouchability. It also influenced indigenous music, art and architecture, poetry, language, literature, food and craftsmanship. In due course, the impact gained significant ground and was juxtaposed cosily for the world to witness the emergence of a long intrinsic association of the two. Today, India’s secular credentials are taking a beating. Since the creation of independent India and Pakistan in 1947, there have been innumerable episodes of horrific sectarian violence that made millions of refugees overnight. Then, in perspective, it is important for us to uphold the multicultural narrative of this great country and “lead a political campaign over Indian history that seeks to reinvent the idea of India itself.”last_img read more

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FederalMogul to launch new engine components and technologies at Bauma

first_imgFederal-Mogul Motorparts is to launch several new FP Diesel® technologies at Bauma in Munich between April 11-17; as well as displaying the brand’s extended portfolio, including pistons, connecting rod bearings and turbocharger and head gaskets. The company says the products have been developed to meet the increasingly demanding conditions of modern diesel engines. Mining and construction vehicle engine manufacturers have made tremendous progress in recent years to reduce emissions, while increasing overall engine power and durability.”The continuous development of individual engine components is critical in order to withstand the higher combustion pressures and temperatures involved with these highly efficient engines. FP Diesel has expanded its range of turbocharger gaskets to include the brands patented high temperature alloy (HTA®) multi-layer steel construction. “The technology ensures the gaskets are reliable and long-lasting at operating temperatures of up to 1,000°C, even with high temperature fluctuations and high alternating mechanical loads,” explained Frank Piojda, Director, Off-Highway/Heavy-Duty, EMEA, Federal-Mogul Motorparts.In addition to the turbocharger gaskets, FP Diesel is presenting its expanded range of the 7-layer ML7 cylinder head gasket for Caterpillar, Cummins and Detroit diesel engines, which is used mainly in mining applications. The gaskets consist of multi-layered steel cores embedded in perforated graphite composite layers, as well as a secondary sealing layer. They are designed to withstand the significantly higher combustion pressures and temperatures of high-performance diesel engines.FP Diesel is also launching its friction-welded POWERFORGED® pistons, which are already used by many leading commercial vehicle and engine manufacturers and are now also available in the aftermarket for Cummins ISX and QSX engines. The patented one-piece, forged steel technology provides the pistons with improved structural strength. The latest generation has a unique double-band piston skirt, which helps to considerably reduce weight and skirt surface by up to 40%. The result is a reduction in friction by up to 17%, providing increased efficiency and lower fuel consumption.In addition to the gaskets and pistons, FP Diesel is presenting its improved connecting rod bearings for construction diesel engines, such as the Caterpillar 3500er series. The lead-free bearings consist of a high-strength material called G-188, which has a pliable running surface alloy that changes its wear resistance and load carrying capacity to the load and temperature conditions in the specific application. The result is a more durable bearing compared to conventional tri-metal aluminum bearings. “Bauma is the most important fair for FP Diesel and offers the perfect stage to present our latest developments to customers and other interested parties,” added Piojda. “We look forward to presenting a portfolio which offers solutions to the audience’s latest powertrain challenges.”last_img read more

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