Story Links Stone played every minute at goalkeeper for the Bulldogs in her second season. She recorded six shutouts and tallied 95 saves. In regular season league play, Stone led the Valley in goals against average (0.54), save percentage (90.9) and shutouts (4). She allowed just four goals and had four shutouts in league play, both totals led the Valley. 2018 All-Midwest Region Team Senior Elaine Gorom (O’Fallon, Ill.) and sophomore Kelsie Stone (Hoffman Estates, Ill.) of the Drake University women’s soccer team were named to the United Soccer Coaches NCAA Division I Women’s All-Midwest Region Teams, the USC announced Monday, Nov. 26 evening. Gorom was named to the second team while Stone was selected to the third team. Gorom, a defender, is the fourth player in school history to be named MVC Defensive Player of the Year. She started 19 matches this season, helped the Bulldogs’ defense record six shutouts and hold MVC opponents to a league-low four goals and all of Drake’s 2018 opponents to league-low 17 goals during the regular season. In her career, Gorom, who was also named to the 2018 All-MVC First Team, played in 71 games and helped Drake win two MVC Regular Season titles. Print Friendly Version
Chopped fresh cilantroSmall whole wheat flour tortillas (6 to 7 inch diameter), warmed (optional)1 Heat large nonstick … This recipe for sweet potato beef mash-up is from beefitswhatsfordinner.com.1 lb ground beef (93% lean or leaner)1/2 cup water, divided4 teaspoons taco seasoning mix, divided 1 large sweet potato, cut into 1/2 inch cubes1 medium yellow onion, chopped1 tablespoon vegetable oil1/4 cup Greek or regular nonfat yogurt1/2 to 1 teaspoon hot pepper sauce
What is the shutter speed of the eye? Have you ever considered this question? After all, the eye functions like a camera in some respects. Shutterbugs know that shutter speed and aperture are factors in proper exposure. Most of us know that the iris of the eye controls the aperture, but what controls the shutter speed? The question is much more complicated for the eye, because it is a motion picture system. Movies are typically shot at 24 frames per second, yet our brain perceives the train of still images as a continuous stream of motion. Does this mean our eyes use a shutter speed less than 24 fps? That can’t be it, because we notice the jitter when a movie pans across the scene too fast. Where are the controls for shutter speed in our visual system? And if the eye is similar to a camcorder, is it analog or digital? To find out, a team of scientists from Harvard, Cornell, State University of New York and University of Connecticut examined the response of neurons in the mammalian eye when watching static uniform noise versus a movie of natural motion. Their results, published in Nature,1 were surprising: the eye has a variable shutter speed in the millisecond range2, and our visual system is digital. Their conclusion will sound familiar to audiophiles and HD geeks familiar with CD/DVD sampling rates:Relative precision may be a general feature of sensory neuron communication, in which an analogue input (the sensory stimulus) is encoded by what is essentially a digital signal (the neuron’s spike train). In this context, temporal precision of neuronal responses is conceptually similar to the problem of digital sampling, in which encoding frequencies must be at least double that of the analogue signal information because of the Nyquist limit.3 From this perspective, the mechanisms that generate neuronal precision … which seem to make the encoding of visual information more complicated, may actually serve to provide easier means for downstream neurons to decode this information.The sampling rate of the visual system, in other words, is more than twice as precise as the incoming signal. This is necessary to allow the brain to extract the maximum amount of information from the input. A high-performance CD or DVD will sound or look better at a high sampling rate. The eye, likewise, samples the visual field appropriately to preserve the maximum amount of information from the input. Audiophiles know that a high sampling rate, while good, has trade-offs; the CPU or player has to be able to keep up with the corresponding higher data rate. Since the mammalian visual field can vary from static noise to a fast-moving field packed with information, neurons automatically adjust with a variable “shutter speed” to match the information content of the scene. As a result, we get optimum performance within the physical constraints of cell biology: “the frequency content of the stimulus determines the temporal scale at which the response must be specified to reconstruct the stimulus faithfully.” The paper said nothing about how this system could have evolved. Instead, the abstract made it clear that the scientists were approaching the problem with a focus on purpose, information, and function. Indeed, information was one of the most frequent words in the paper, used 36 times:Using information-theoretic techniques, we demonstrate a clear role of relative precision, and show that the experimentally observed temporal structure in the neuronal response is necessary to represent accurately the more slowly changing visual world. By establishing a functional role of precision, we link visual neuron function on slow timescales to temporal structure in the response at faster timescales, and uncover a straightforward purpose of fine-timescale features of neuronal spike trains.A layman’s summary of this complex paper was published on PhysOrg entitled, “Brain’s timing linked with timescales of the natural visual world.”1Daniel A. Butts et al, “Temporal precision in the neural code and the timescales of natural vision,” Nature 449, 92-95 (6 September 2007) | doi:10.1038/nature06105.2The authors said, “This remarkable precision at millisecond timescales has been observed in the retina, the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN)and the visual cortex, as well as in many other sensory systems such as the fly visual system, the electrosensory system of the weakly electric fish, and the mammalian somatosensory and auditory systems.”3Wikipedia explains, “The sampling theorem tells us that aliasing can be avoided if the Nyquist frequency [i.e., half the sampling frequency of a discrete signal processing system] is greater than the bandwidth, or maximum frequency, of the signal being sampled…. In principle, a Nyquist frequency just larger than the signal bandwidth is sufficient to allow perfect reconstruction of the signal from the samples.”Science Daily picked up on this story two days after we did, with much less detail. This finding becomes more amazing the more you think about it. It shows that comparing the eye to a camera is way too simplistic. We have a digital sampling studio in our heads! Maybe you’ve thought sometimes that the eye can’t be too great if it perceives 24 frames per second as continuous motion. Well, think about all that’s going on. The eye is a physical system – subject to physical and molecular constraints. The rhodopsin in the rod or cone in the retina (one pixel) must reset itself in a finite amount of time, because chemical reactions (protein rearrangements) cannot be instantaneous. Similarly, each neuron in the visual system requires a reset before the next firing. A neural axon contains a train of complex “ion pumps” (01/17/2002) that transmit a chemo-electric signal down the membrane to the tip. There, neurotransmitters must be delivered across a synapse to the next neuron. Though the response is rapid, it does take measurable time. Now, multiply this constraint by the 120 megapixels in each eye that are all having to simultaneously intake photons from the incoming visual field, fire a bit to the brain, and reset (to see what’s involved there, see the 12/30/2003 entry). It’s incredible that our 3-pound jelly-like brains can keep up with it, while simultaneously monitoring our heart, breathing, and every other input coming from all the senses from head to toe. To handle this torrent of information, the visual system samples the field and digitizes it. Each neuron firing event is an element in a code. The brain does not receive an actual picture, like a projection on a screen. It receives a continuous train of neuronal signals rich with information. Because all the information has been encoded with the optimum sampling rate, the brain has all it needs to reconstruct the continuously moving scene with high fidelity. High-def TV and MPEG-4 is nothing compared to this. Even beyond that (if you are still struggling to keep up with this mind-boggling discussion), the neuronal pattern has a temporal structure that the brain interprets to get the time-based information out of the signal. We shouldn’t think of a single shutter speed for the eye, in other words; there are hundreds of millions of individual shutters going off at their own variable rates. Each rod or cone, each neuron in the optic nerve, and each neuron in the visual cortex is automatically adjusting its firing to provide the brain with a continuous pattern, containing both spatial and temporal structure, that maximizes the amount of useful information from the scene. So the analog-to-digital sampling is not just two-dimensional, but four-dimensional: we get a stereo image from two 2-D sources (combining the information from each eyeball), yielding 3-D, and the temporal structure makes it 4-D. This all happens within the constraints of physical chemistry. A complex 4-D field of information, therefore, is represented in code, where each neuron firing is a bit (“the response of the neuron … consists of discrete firing ‘events’”). The temporal structure of the digitally-sampled code is optimized to preserve the maximum amount of information from the scene, without swamping the brain with unnecessary bits (TMI, too much information). Lest this commentary cause cognitive overload from TMI, we won’t remind you of another amazing fact, that the eye also does on-the-fly imaging processing (05/22/2003, 05/27/2003). Try building a robot with all this that can dive into a swimming pool. We saw a somewhat similar encoding/decoding technology in the olfactory sense (see 11/07/2001, 06/07/2005); an almost infinitely varying input can be represented by finite neurons using a combinatorial code. Update: A new paper in Current Biology explored this very thing on Sept. 17: “spike-timing dependent plasticity” apparently is responsible for the precision in the olfactory sense of locusts. The authors said this has been found also in sight, learning and memory formation in vertebrates. It is likely that all the senses employ digital sampling to some degree. What a concept: humans have digital senses, and analog-to-digital conversion is built into our ostensibly analog anatomy. This is true for all other animals, too. What are the chances that locusts dreamed up this technology by evolution? The authors here, again, used an information-theoretic approach to understand the role and purpose of the phenomenon under investigation. Doesn’t that sound like Intelligent Design at work? Who needs Charlie to do science? The eye only gave him cold shudders, and well it should have (12/30/2003, 05/22/2003, 11/10/2006 commentaries). He didn’t know a hundredth of the problem. 1859 was way before people knew anything about digital sampling, analog-to-digital conversion, millisecond precision, combinatorial code representation of 4-D signals, motion pictures, image processing, neuronal and genetic codes, and much, much more. Sorry, Charlie; the Darwinian revolution has been rendered obsolete by the information revolution. Get with the picture.An evolutionary theorist from Australia responded,The article “Eyes do Precision Sampling” attracted my attention and drew me to your site. You see (no pun intended) in New Scientist (11 August 2007, No. 2616) there was a rather derisive feature: Life’s Biggest Blunders – The design flaws that prove evolution is blind. And as expected the eye come under the writer’s critical gaze concluding “back-front retinas are a mistake”. So now comparing these articles I realized that is essential for the Darwinist to downplay design features in order to detract from anything that remotely looks design – impeccable design at that! I am agnostic but I can never deny that organic life (except human) is doing a wonderful job at functioning at optimum capacity. Thank you for this sight – sorry – site!(Visited 14 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest Seed Consultants has named Daniel Call as their new General Manager.“Daniel has been a great student, he knows the seed business and I expect the continued success of Seed Consultants under his guidance and I look forward to watching Seed Consultants continue to grow just as it has over the past 25 years,” said Chris Jeffries, Seed Consultants founder.Daniel CallCall grew up on a grain and hog farm in Madison County, Ohio. He earned a Bachelor’s degree in Agriculture at The Ohio State University. Prior to working at Seed Consultants, he was a DSM for eight years at AgReliant Genetics. Since 2006, he has been Seed Consultants’ Operations Manager.“I’m excited for the opportunity to lead Seed Consultants and I look forward to growing the well-respected Seed Consultants brand,” Call said.Retiring General Manager Chris Jeffries will be transitioning to a sales role and will be servicing his customers’ seed needs. Founded in 1990, Seed Consultants is the largest Ohio based seed company and primarily markets seed corn, soybeans, wheat and alfalfa varieties to growers in the eastern Corn Belt.AUDIO: The Ohio Ag Net’s Ty Higgins visited with Call shortly after the announcement. Call discussed the legacy built by Jeffries and how that foundation would built Seed Consultants for many years to come.Ty’s Wrap for Wednesday
Though Missouri is among the dozen or so states that have yet to adopt a statewide energy efficiency code for residential and private commercial construction, it is not without green building proponents and strategies.About a year ago, GBA noted that the Building Codes Assistance Project, a Washington, DC, advocacy group that offers code-development assistance to state and local officials, has been closely tracking state and local code initiatives, including those in Missouri, where homebuilding associations have argued against regulations they say will raise prices. But green builders in the state have nonetheless proposed programs designed to encourage high-performance construction, including one that would offer financial incentives, in the form of reduced permit fees, for building to the National Association of Home Builders’ National Green Building Standard, also known as the ICC-700.And now the ICC-700 – serving as the residential construction component of the International Code Council’s International Green Construction Code – is being considered for adoption as a voluntary guideline for homebuilding in Clay County, part of the Kansas City metropolitan area. (Clay County and Jefferson County, near St. Louis, are the only two counties in Missouri authorized to adopt, without voter approval, regulations for residential and private commercial construction, according to the BCAP.)Soliciting feedback from the communityA recent story in the Liberty Tribune, which serves Clay County, describes the drive to implement ICC-700 on a voluntary basis as largely collaborative, with the county’s Building Codes Commission set to hold public meetings on the subject on July 14 and 28, and August 11.The man behind the proposal, Matt Tapp, the county’s director of planning and zoning, included a provision to grade participating projects based on their compliance with the National Green Building Standard, and then post each home’s grade on a special sign in front of the house when it’s listed for sale.“It’s been kind of in the back of my mind ever since I got here in 2008 that we needed to move toward a green building standard,” Tapp told the paper. “We want to make the houses that are being built in Clay County more sustainable. It’s just a good idea.”
Gujarat’s controversial anti-terror law that has several draconian provisions like intercepted telephonic talk as legitimate evidence, and statement before a police official of SP rank being admissible evidence in the court, is set to be enforced from December 1.Earlier this month, President Ram Nath Kovind had given his assent to the Gujarat Control of Terrorism and Organised Crime (GCTOC) Act, which had thrice failed to get the nod from three previous Presidents since 2004 owing to draconian provisions and apparently sweeping powers given to the police.The revised version of the controversial legislation was passed by the BJP government in the State in March 2015, and was formulated to deal with terrorism and organised crime such as contract killing, ponzi schemes, narcotics trade, extortion rackets, cyber crime, land-grabbing and human trafficking.On Tuesday, Minister of State for Home, Pradeepsinh Jadeja, said, “We will start the implementation of the GCTOC Act from December 1. A notification in this regard will be issued soon.”“The provisions of the Act will prove crucial in dealing with terrorism and organised crimes, such as contract killing, ponzi schemes, narcotics trade and extortion rackets,” he said, adding that since Gujarat is a border State and has been a victim of terrorism, it needs such strong laws to deal with terrorism and organised crime.The law allows intercepted telephonic conversations as legitimate evidence. Another key provision is admissibility of confession made before a police officer as evidence.The Bill, earlier named as the Gujarat Control of Organised Crime (GUJCOC) Bill, had failed to get the Presidential nod thrice since 2004 when Prime Minister Narendra Modi was chief minister and the Congress-led UPA was in power at the Centre. In 2015, the BJP government in the State re-introduced the Bill by renaming it as the GCTOC. According to Mr. Jadeja, the legislation also provides for creation of a special court and appointment of special public prosecutors to expedite trial of the cases filed under the law.“We can now attach properties acquired through organised crimes. We can also cancel transfer of properties. Other provision of the Act is admissibility of confession made before a police officer as evidence,” Mr. Jadeja added.