Clinton warns of poverty

first_imgIf there’s one lesson from globalization, it’s that those in wealthy countries must work to empower people in poorer nations, Bill Clinton said Friday in a speech to a forum of philanthropists gathered at Google. And he warned, unless people want their grandchildren “to live in a bubble” insulated from a warming earth, diminishing resources and exploding population growth, “you don’t have anything better to do.” Clinton, speaking to global charity executives, gave a blunt assessment of a growing divide in the world that threatens to increase poverty and health problems at the same time climate change could wreak havoc on the world’s ability to feed an exploding population. Clinton noted that globalization is not all bad. Answering a question, he told the Google audience “There is a huge sea change now in American attitudes. This coming election is going to be the only one in my lifetime where Americans will actually be influenced in their voting by what is necessary to restore our country’s standing in the world.” And asked what he would do as “first man” that he failed to do as president, he laughed, “If I were to do it again, first of all I wouldn’t be making the decisions.” Then, he launched into an agenda that would include sending more U.S. aid to help poorer countries build their infrastructure. Clinton described how his eyes have been opened after leaving the presidency to the powers of the marketplace, citing examples of how bringing order to inefficient markets can help people’s lives. He described how his foundation has worked with governments to drive down the cost of drugs to treat HIV/AIDS and children’s diseases and now is looking for ways to organize the market of selling carbon emission limits. But he warned climate change is only one of several global problems threatening the quality of life around the world. “It is completely unsustainable, not only because of climate change but of a related condition that is likely to bite us more severely, even before the worst implications of climate change, that is the accumulated combinations of resource depletion and population explosion.” But he said never before has the private sector, combined with technological tools, been in a stronger position to be a force for change. “Private citizens have more power to do public good than ever before,” Clinton said. “The rise of fortunes, unprecedented number of people quite wealthy at an earlier and earlier period in their lives, the rise of the Internet as a giving tool has enabled people of modest means to move the world, if they decide to, at the same time.”160Want local news?Sign up for the Localist and stay informed Something went wrong. Please try again.subscribeCongratulations! You’re all set! In fact, referring to his hosts Google founders Larry Page and Sergei Brin, he said it is hard to criticize it “if you’ve had the life that Larry and Sergei have built and all these employees at Google.” But, he added, “half of the world’s people aren’t part of this, they’re still living on less $2 a day.” While mostly avoiding politics, Clinton did take a swipe at the Iraq war, saying he doesn’t support expansion of troops. “The single most expensive thing you can do in a modern society is fight,” he said. Whether one supports or opposes the conflict, “just think about the money,” he added. “In Iraq we are soon going to hit the $500 billion mark. There are 26 million people there. What about the other 6.5 billion people in the world?” Clinton is making several Bay Area appearances this week, though none are open to the public. Today, he is meeting with philanthropists under 40 to encourage them to get more involved. On Sunday, he will appear at a breakfast fundraiser for Hillary Clinton’s presidential campaign and give a speech to the National School Boards Association. All the events are in San Francisco. But he didn’t steer entirely away from politics on Friday. last_img read more

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DONEGAL MUM AND DAUGHTER TO ADDRESS INTERNATIONAL DIGITAL SUMMIT

first_imgLetterkenny woman Joanne Sweeney-Burke and daughter Sophie.A Donegal mum and daughter are to address a major Digital Citizenship Summit.Digital expert Joanne Sweeney-Burke and daughter Sophie Burke will address the event at Bournemouth University were attendees will see ways to improve the use of technology and interaction online.Called the Digital Citizenship Summit UK (DigCitSummitUK), it is a unique conference geared towards safe, savvy, and ethical use of social media and tech. “Digital Citizenship” is an umbrella term used to describe the expectations of being a digital citizen in regards to ethics, etiquette, rights, and responsibilities. Common topics that are discussed include cyberbullying, empathy online, trolls, security, savvy use of social media, and online reputation.Digital Citizenship Summit UK will feature a diverse range of prominent educational, parenting, and industry leaders, including four American speakers from the inaugural Digital Citizenship Summit held in the United States last October.Founder and CEO of Digital Training Institute Joanne Sweeney-Burke, who is originally from Letterkenny, will present alongside her 20-year old daughter Sophie, a 2nd year Accounting student at NUI, Galway. Sophie also works part-time as a Digital Marketing Executive in the family business.Joanne says, “Sophie and I have been speaking, writing and developing educational resources based on Mike Rabble’s ‘Digital Etiquette’ theme for the past four years. We will share details of our work and outline why we have a passion for digital citizenship. I parented Sophie through the digital revolution and together we set down mutual ground rules on social media and digital technology use – both from a parent and a teens’ perspective.” Joanne and Sophie will deliver a joint presentation entitled ‘Empowering Generation Z’ while Sophie will also chair a panel debate ‘The Digital Future of Teens’.Digital Citizenship Summit UK is suited for educators, parents, administrators, students, industry, and organisation leaders. The day will include a various speakers and industry experts including a student panel discussion, Barclays Coding Playground, and ample time to network with others from across the UK, Europe, and the United States that are involved in improving student social media and tech use. The all-day event (9 AM until 5 PM) is free; registration is through DigCitSummit.com.DONEGAL MUM AND DAUGHTER TO ADDRESS INTERNATIONAL DIGITAL SUMMIT was last modified: January 16th, 2016 by StephenShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:digital summitdonegalJoanne Sweeney-BurkeSophie Burkelast_img read more

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LETTERKENNY MAIN STREET SEALED OFF AFTER BOMB SCARE

first_imgGardai were forced to seal off Letterkenny Main Street in the early hours of Sunday morning following a bomb scare.Letterkenny Main Street had to be sealed off.It followed a phonecall that a device had been left at a premises in the town.The street was closed off as Gardai checked premises. The incident was later found to be a hoax call and the Main Street was reopened. LETTERKENNY MAIN STREET SEALED OFF AFTER BOMB SCARE was last modified: September 1st, 2014 by StephenShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:bombscaredonegalGardaihoaxLETETRKENNYlast_img read more

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GAA NEWS: ST EUNAN’S LIFT U16 COUNTY TITLE

first_imgST EUNAN’S U16s have been crowned county league title winners after their weekend win over Ardara.They defeated Ardara 2-15 to 0-05 in the county final.First half goals from Kevin Kealy and Sean McGettigan along with some beautiful scores from the brilliant Niall O’Donnell set up this victory.  GAA NEWS: ST EUNAN’S LIFT U16 COUNTY TITLE was last modified: November 4th, 2014 by John2Share this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:ArdaraSt EunansU16 county league finallast_img read more

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Man arrested following death of woman who lived in Convoy

first_imgA man has been arrested on suspicion of murder by police investigating the death of a mother who lived in a Co Donegal village.The wman was found dead while on a boating holiday in Co Fermanagh.Lu Na McKinney, 35, was in a hired cruiser in Co Fermanagh with her husband and their two young children when the incident happened last April. Ms McKinney and her husband had lived in a housing estate in Convoy.PSNI detective inspector David McGrory said detectives had reviewed the circumstances surrounding the death and have arrested a 41-year-old man on suspicion of murder.“He is currently in custody at Omagh where he is helping police with their inquiries” he said.“I would like to appeal to any witnesses to come forward and also anyone who had contact with Lu Na McKinney, who lived in Convoy, Co Donegal, in the months preceding her death.” The PSNI are working with Gardai to investigate.The boat was moored at Devenish Island, a popular visitor attraction near Enniskillen, Co Fermanagh.Emergency services found her body but intensive attempts to resuscitate her failed.Gardaí and the PSNI are appealing for anyone with information to contact them.Man arrested following death of woman who lived in Convoy was last modified: December 2nd, 2017 by StephenShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:arrestconvoydonegalFermanaghlast_img read more

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How to help your children develop good financial habits – with Advice First

first_img“Mum, can I have €5 euro?!” School’s out for Summer, but are there pearls of wisdom we could be teaching the little ones in our life, that could last a lifetime? Pascal Curran, Advice FirstWhile we’re being asked for those extra treats, and spending a bit more on our holidays than we possibly would during term time (ice-cream, beach toys, cinema trips etc) and  – of course, we enjoy creating memories and experiences, but they can be a good opportunity to share some tips and lessons too. Learned behaviour sticks and talking about money matters can help set children up for success down the line, and value their things and moments, now.  “Money doesn’t grow on trees” – how many times have you said that? It’s usually the first financial lesson given to children! Here are 8 other simple lessons that will help your children, from an early age through to adulthood, to develop good financial habits;  Look after the pennies and the pounds will look after themselvesOne for the younger children. Explain to them how all money has a value and that each of those small amounts will add up for them down the road. Start savingEncourage your kids to start a savings habit from the time they get pocket money. The key here is to actually spend the savings from time to time, so that your children then experience the rewards from saving money. If it looks too good to be true…Teach your children to avoid impulse purchases of “great deals” without looking at them closely or talking to you first. Someone is making money, and it’s rarely them. Know your value as buyerMake sure your children understand the power they have as a buyer. Buying “stuff” is a series of trades. Teach them to check for discounts and that a bit of haggling never hurt anyone. Learn from my mistakes!Tell your older children about financial mistakes you made yourself and lessons you’ve learned about managing money better. Maybe you made a really careless and expensive purchase that you later regretted. Avoid unnecessary borrowingAs your kids get older, the use of debt starts to arise. Do they need a credit card while at college? If so, teach them good habits and the importance of paying it off in full each month. Maybe by borrowing (from the bank of mum and dad) there I said it, to pay their gym subscription up front will result in big savings, rather than paying it monthly. Teach your children to examine each debt situation in detail, looking at the cost of borrowing as well as the benefits of the purchase. Have a planWhile they might not need our services at a young age, children should be taught about looking at the longer term and bigger picture, making careful financial choices and having a plan to guide them. Be secureTalk to your children about good security habits around their bank accounts, cards and passwords etc. Explain the dangers of sharing financial data – how friends have fallen out unnecessarily over money, to be careful using ATMs and how cards can be skimmed etc. Teach them about good online habits and the dangers of scams such as phishing. The big lesson is – for them to talk to you if they’ve any doubts at all about any financial situation… If your children follow these lessons, they can look forward to a more prosperous and safer financial future. This is the final month of Pascal’s financial advice on the most frequently asked topics – breaking down the barriers around financial advice in Pascal’s renowned experienced and jargon-free way! Thank you for reading, and we’re only a phone-call away for your burning questions!If you would like to book a no obligations consultation with Pascal, click here or simply call  +353 74 910 39 38 to talk to us today. Follow us on Facebook & Instagram   Advice First Financial Services Ltd trading as Advice First Financial is regulated by the Central Bank of Ireland.How to help your children develop good financial habits – with Advice First was last modified: August 1st, 2019 by Pascal CurranShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window)last_img read more

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Ndamase takes local trends global

first_imgIn 1990, Ndamase launched what was to prove one of his most important associations – designing the Madiba Shirts for the country’s future president. (Image: Sonwabile Ndamase Facebook)Fashion runs in his veins and he has dressed the who’s who of the South African elite, yet he has always stood for the ordinary man.Sonwabile Ndamase is an innovator, creative thinker and visionary. He is a sought-after trend analyst and while his feet remain firmly planted on African soil, he uses a global perspective to source new ideas, gauge the zeitgeist and identify cutting edge trends.Encouraged by a mother who loved sewing, Ndamase and his siblings were taught to be all-rounders at home.After studying fashion in Johannesburg, Ndamase went on to study the commercial side of the clothing business in Sweden and the USA; this retail background gave him a thorough understanding of the realities of the fashion market. In 1994, he founded and established Vukani Fashion Awards to unearth undiscovered South African fashion design talent.“This is an export industry which can earn large sums in foreign currency for South Africa but it is fuelled by fashion influences that dictate how we should look and what we should wear,” he says today, with more than 29 years in the sector under his belt.“New colours and styles constantly create a desire for new clothes, especially among young and fashion-conscious people but as I am a South African, I felt passionate about improving the indigenous fashion in our country.”And Ndamase, who is a Play Your Part Ambassador, walks the talk. He was recently asked to design a uniquely South African garment for Miss Earth South Africa.MAKING A FASHION STATEMENT WITH MADIBAOf all of Ndamase’s clients Nelson Mandela was the one who gave his creations a worldwide appeal.In 1990, Ndamase launched what was to prove one of his most important associations – designing the Madiba Shirts for the country’s future president.“The decision to make a style statement was one Nelson Mandela made on his own,” the designer says. “He wanted to identify with the people. The majority of South Africans never wore suits, so he wanted to have a specific kind of shirt made – cut long so it could hang over trousers, both coloured and plain, with the conventional pointed collar as well as the standing Nehru.“As always, Madiba wanted to do things his own way.”VUKANI AWARDSThe Vukani Awards are an African fashion showcase held over a week. It is not only an exhibition, but also an information-sharing forum for designers, manufacturers, weavers and others in the clothing industry.The 21st edition of the awards took place during November.Guests on the evening included Metro FM talk show host Criselda Kananda, former model and actress Nakedi Ribane and Gauteng MEC for infrastructure Nandi Mayathula-Khoza, who was a key speaker at the event.The High Fashion Award went to Mmaphefo Dibetso. The award for Most Innovative Designer was presented to Simo Matomela while Zamaswazi Sithole took home the Best Ready to Wear award.Recipients in each category received generous financial support with the overall winner Zamaswazi Sithole taking R40 000; Simo Matomela and Mmaphefo Dibetso received R20 000 each.The winners will also be enrolled in a six-month mentorship programme to the value of R35 000 with Vukani Range Creations.“Fashion creates dreams and makes them happen,” Ndamase says. “We are thrilled to see platforms such as the annual Vukani Fashion Awards act as a tool that offers opportunities to support the South African fashion community.”Previous winners have participated in Mozambique, Swaziland, Cape Town, Joburg and Durban fashion weeks to rave reviews. Some have gone so far as to have their ranges featured at the London, New York and Paris fashion weeks.Each year, 12 or more designers are selected and tasked with designing garments along a theme.The three prize categories are Most Innovative Designer, Designer Collection, and High Fashion / National Costume. They have presented mixed results. Some designs tend towards folklore or patriotism, while other designers have gone on to establish themselves and service a clientele that is hungry for a local identity.Besides Mandela, Ndamase’s client base includes King Letsie III of Lesotho; Bill Clinton, the former American; President Jacob Zuma; American musician Quincy Jones; and South African businessman Saki Macozoma.last_img read more

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Smart farming fights climate change

first_imgThe Smart Agriculture for Climate Resilience programme is the first provincial climate change policy for agriculture in South Africa, and specifically focuses on food security. (Image: Darling Tourism Via Media Club South Africa)A collaboration between the University of Cape Town and two provincial government department seeks to develop long-term resistance methods to climate change.Western Cape agriculture plays an important role in South Africa’s economy in terms of job creation and socio-economic development, even while it is vulnerable to climate change.The university and the departments of agriculture, and environmental affairs and development planning recognised that a strategic and co-ordinated approach was needed to develop long-term resilience to climate change. This could be done through climate-smart agriculture and by placing the sector on a clear pathway towards a green economy.Their collaboration has brought about the Smart Agriculture for Climate Resilience programme. It is the first provincial climate change policy for agriculture in South Africa, and specifically focuses on food security. It promotes climate-smart agriculture.SMART AGRICULTUREThe programme is tied to the Western Cape’s five-year provincial strategic plan and the strategic goals of the provincial department of agriculture. One of the key goals is to optimise the sustainable use of water and land resources to increase climate-smart agricultural production.Collaborative planning and action within and between public and private sectors includes players such as organised agriculture and industry associations, farmers, agri-processors and agri-business, labour and civil society, and research and academic institutions.According to the African Climate and Development Initiative (ACDI), the project has achieved an understanding of expected climate risks as well as effects on and vulnerabilities in agriculture. It has established important linkages between resource sectors, water, energy and agricultural production. It has also shown that vulnerability is high across the sector.The project’s framework to battle the harsh impact of climate change has been its biggest success so far. It has identified regions that have a milder climate and where climate change will not be as dramatic.These may become the future centres of food production.ADAPTING TO A CHANGING CLIMATEThe province has already shown it has the capacity to adapt, with local companies already providing energy-saving low-carbon solutions to farms and agri-businesses. Leading wine estates have installed energy-saving measures and systems for renewable energy generation.The Fruit Look Project is a prime example of how the province is adapting. The project uses satellite images to help fruit farmers increase their irrigation efficiency. These solutions must be harnessed to stimulate innovation and technology transfer for climate change adaptation and mitigation.It takes a strong spatial approach, and has created 23 spatial zones. This is because the risks and effects of climate change differ widely across the province. It is all dependent on climate, soils, vegetation and farming systems.Through this project the western marginal grain zones such as the Rooi Karoo-Aurora, are expected to shift to livestock production. This zone will become hotter and drier. Some zones could benefit from mild warming and wetting, for example the southern GrootBrak-Plett zone.According to the ACDI, the project proposes a focus on four strategic areas, with the aim to:Promote a climate-resilient low-carbon production system that is productive, competitive, equitable and ecologically sustainable.Strengthen effective climate disaster risk-reduction and management for agriculture.Strengthen monitoring, data and knowledge management and sharing, and lead strategic research for climate change and agriculture.Ensure good co-operative governance and joint planning for effective climate change response implementation for agriculture.Public and private partnerships are helping to make South Africa’s food security mission a success. Play your Part too; and send us your story.last_img read more

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Android Market Share Numbers Questioned

first_imgWhat it Takes to Build a Highly Secure FinTech … The Rise and Rise of Mobile Payment Technology Related Posts Tags:#mobile#news#NYT#web sarah perez Why IoT Apps are Eating Device Interfaces Role of Mobile App Analytics In-App Engagement Meanwhile, the number 3 and 4 slots were held by RIM and iOS, respectively. RIM sold 47.5 million units – up 38.2% over last year. But its market share declined from 19.5% in Q4 2009 to 13.7% in Q4 2010.Apple sold 46.6 million units in 2010, up 87.2% from 2009. It has maintained its 16% market share in Q4 2010.In addition, IDC positioned Nokia as the top vendor in smartphone shipments and market share in its recent report too. A report that Android has achieved status as the number one smartphone platform in the world has been called into question. According to analyst firms Gartner and IDC, the numbers reported by competitor Canalys are inaccurate…at least for now. Despite 888.8% growth this year, Android did not displace Symbian in Q4 2010 as the world’s top smartphone platform, both firms say.Instead, Gartner reports that Android overtook Symbian in unit sales, but Symbian is still slightly ahead in terms of market share. IDC also reported that Symbian is the “market leader” at present.Android Hasn’t Made It…YetThat’s not to say that Android isn’t growing meteorically – Gartner reported that Android as an operating system grew 888.8% in 2010 and is now in the number two position worldwide. Its fourth quarter sales were driven by broad availability of devices from companies like HTC, Samsung and Motorola.Symbian’s market share dropped in the fourth quarter to 32.6% (32.6 million units), allowing Android to take over in unit sales. However, says Roberta Cozza, principal research analyst at Gartner, “the Symbian OS is also used by Fujitsu and Sharp as well as in legacy products from Sony Ericsson and Samsung. This aggregated volume kept Symbian slightly ahead of Android.”Nokia shipped 461.3 million units in 2010, a 7.5% drop since 2009. In market share, Nokia dropped 6.7% since 2009.last_img read more

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How Sheep Became Livestock

first_imgThe domestication of plants and animals was one of the most important events in human history, but rarely have archaeologists been able to catch the process in the act. Now, research at an 11,000-year-old settlement in Turkey shows that some early farmers kept wild sheep penned up in the middle of their village—thus setting the stage for the dramatic changes that led to today’s domesticated animals.Archaeologists studying the origins of farming have hundreds of sites to choose from across the Middle East, but few of them tell the full story. That requires a spot that spans the transition between a hunting and gathering lifestyle and a farming lifestyle, a period from about 10,500 to 9500 years ago. Researchers have long had their eyes on just such a site: Aşıklı Höyük, located on the banks of the Melendiz River in central Turkey—a land of idyllic streams and dramatic volcanic formations popular with tourists.Earlier work had suggested that Aşıklı Höyük might be a center of the earliest stages of animal domestication. The new study, led by zooarchaeologist Mary Stiner of the University of Arizona in Tucson, confirms this. The team looked at an archaeological layer radiocarbon dated to between 10,400 and 10,100 years ago. The botanical remains from this level show intensive cultivation of cereals, lentils, and nuts, meaning that crop farming was already under way; but the spectrum of animal bones in the earliest parts of this layer reflects the hunting of a wide variety of wild animals including hares, tortoises, and fish, along with larger animals such as goats, wild cattle, deer, and sheep. The most abundant large animal was sheep, although they represented less than half of the total animals.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)Moreover, the sheep bones from these early levels were clearly those of wild animals, which can be distinguished from domesticated animals by their larger size and the distribution of ages and sexes: Wild herds, left alone by humans, tend to include more older animals and a roughly equal number of males and females.Beginning about 10,200 years ago, however, the proportions of wild animals in this layer began to change, as the team reports online this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The hunting of smaller animals appears to fall off to insignificant numbers, while the percentage of sheep—which outnumber goats by three to one—steadily increases. By about 9500 years ago, sheep represented nearly 90% of all animals at the site. Moreover, the researchers say that the age and sex pattern of the bones indicate active management, or herding, of the sheep: Only about 11% of the females died before the age of 6 to 7 months, whereas 58% of the males did, a typical pattern that reflects farmers’ desire to preserve females for breeding.So where were these herded-yet-still-wild sheep kept? The archaeological smoking gun for animal herding is dung deposits in or near a village, and the team found ancient dung in bountiful quantities between the closely packed houses of the settlement. Moreover, under the microscope, Stiner and her colleagues were able to confirm that the dung—rich with traces of grasses, sedges, rushes, and other things that sheep like to eat—came straight out of the animals, rather than being mixed with other ingredients to make mudbricks, mortar, or fuel for fires. That means the dung was the result of stabling rather than reuse by humans for other purposes.The team concludes that the sheep were kept captive in the village itself, even though the animals were still “morphologically wild”—that is, they had not yet undergone the reduction in size typical of domestic animals. They probably remained “behaviorally wild” as well; that is, they had yet to become the docile, sheeplike animals we know today—although the team suggests that some animals might have been introduced into the village while still very young, as pets for children.So why did the villagers need to pen up sheep when they were already successfully hunting them? Stiner and her co-workers suggest that Aşıklı Höyük’s location by the Melendiz River, in a region with fertile soils ideal for crop farming, tempted early farmers to settle down and establish a permanent village. The downside of settlement would have been less time for roaming farther away to hunt the meat they still needed in their diet. That “scheduling conflict” between hunting and farming was best solved by bringing the sheep to the village rather than villagers going out to find the sheep, the team says. Thus, the findings provide a new glimpse into the ways that early farmers might have inadvertently begun to domesticate animals, possibly by choosing to stable less aggressive animals and thus favoring genetic variants that eventually led to domesticated varieties.“It is wonderful to see these data starting to come out,” says Nerissa Russell, a zooarchaeologist at Cornell University. Jean-Denis Vigne, a zooarchaeologist at the National Museum of Natural History in Paris, agrees. “We have long suspected a kind of early [animal] management at Aşıklı, and we were waiting for new data to support this perspective.”But Melinda Zeder, a zooarchaeologist at the Smithsonian Institution’s National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C., questions some details of the study, including whether the team was able to accurately determine the sex of the sheep—which was done by examining their pelvis bones—especially in young animals. Zeder also disagrees with the team’s contention that the herding of sheep was a response to a scheduling conflict once the people at Aşıklı settled down; rather than facing a conflict, Zeder says, they may have found a new way to take fuller advantage of both the rich plant and animal resources available in the region around Aşıklı Höyük.And although Russell agrees that “scheduling conflicts would have been a major issue in the transition to agriculture,” she questions to what extent herding sheep would have helped solve them. “Herding would have required new kinds of labor and posed its own scheduling and labor allocation issues,” she says.last_img read more

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